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Modern Communications Receiver Design and Technology

Modern Communications Receiver Design and Technology

By (author): Cornell Drentea
Copyright: 2010
Pages: 484
ISBN: 9781596933101

This comprehensive sourcebook thoroughly explores the state-of-the-art in communications receivers, providing detailed practical guidance for constructing an actual high dynamic range receiver from system design to packaging. You also find clear explanations of the technical underpinnings that you need to understand for your work in the field. This cutting-edge reference presents the latest information on modern superheterodyne receivers, dynamic range, mixers, oscillators, complex coherent synthesizers, automatic gain control, DSP and software radios. You find in-depth discussions on system design, including coverage of all pertinent data and tools. Moreover, the book offers you a solid understanding of packaging and mechanical considerations, as well as a look at tomorrow's receiver technology, including new Bragg-cell applications for ultra-wideband electronic warfare receivers. This one-stop resource is packed with over 300 illustrations that support critical topics throughout.
Introduction to Receivers; The History of Radio - The Coherer. The First Radio Receiver. The Decoherer (Practical Coherer/Decoherer Receivers). Galena Crystal Discovery, the Fleming Valve, and the Audion. The Audion and the Regenerative Receiver. The Audion and the Local Oscillator. The Audion and the Tuned Radio Frequency (TRF) Receiver. Early Progress in Radio Receivers.; The Superheterodyne Receiver - Single Conversions. Multiple Conversions. Direct Conversion (Zero IF).; Implementing Single Conversion Superheterodynes - The Image Problem. UpconvertingThe Rule of 35%. Selectivity and IF Filters. Defining Baseband and Broadband: The Concept of Percentage Bandwidth. Percentage Bandwidth and Filter Design. The Seven-Layer ISO-OSI Model. IF Filters, anIntroductionHistory of Filter Design. Elements of Modern Filter Design. Passband, Bandwidth, and Stopband. Shape Factor. Center Frequency and Nominal Center Frequency. Attenuation and Insertion Loss. Ultimate Rejection. Ripple and Passband Ripple. Spurious Response. Linearity. Intermodulation Distortion (IMD) in IF Filters. Power Handling Capability. Settling Time and Rise Time in Filters. Phase Delay and Group Delay Distortion. Impedance. Vibration-Induced Sidebands. Modern Filter Approximations. Bessel or Linear Phase. Butterworth. Chebyshev. Cauer-Elliptic. Gaussian. Synchronously Tuned. IF Filter Technologies. Mechanical Filters. Quartz Crystal Filters. Temperature Stability in Quartz Crystal Filters. Designing High Performance Quartz IF Filters. Monolithic Crystal Filters (MCF). The Tandem Monolithic. Ceramic Filters. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) and Bulk Acoustic Wave (BAW) Filters. Technological Trade-Offs in Intermediate Frequency (IF) Filters. ; Implementing Double Conversions; Implementing Multiple Conversions; Implementing Direct Conversions - Image Reject Mixers. Hartley Architecture. Weaver Architecture. Self-Calibrating Architecture. Image Reject Mixer with Sign-Sign Least Mean Square (SS-LMS) Calibration Method. Image Reject Mixers Conclusions. Image Recovery Receivers.; Special Conversions and Their Implementation; Drift-Canceling Loops and the Barlow-Wadley Receiver; High Probability of Intercept (HPOI) and the Ideal Receiver; The Role of the Receiver in a Communications Link; System Design Considerations for Modern Receivers -Introduction. Understanding Intermodulation Distortion Products. Predicting Receiver System Spurious Performance: Design Tools for Predicting Intermodulation Distortion. System Analysis for a General Coverage Communication ReceiverA Design Case. ; Dynamic Range - Definitions: The Five Types of Dynamic Range. Determining Noise Figure Requirements Sensitivity. Design Considerations for the Front EndComposite Noise Figure. Understanding the Third-Order Intercept Point Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (IP3SFDR). Simulating and Measuring Composite Linear Dynamic Range for an HPOI Receiver.; High-Performance Receiver Front-End Design Example - Designing a Front End for an HF Receiver/Transceiver. Practical Preselector Design: Automatically Switched Half-Octave Filter BanksA Design Case. Switching Mechanisms of Front-End Filters for Best Dynamic Range Performance. Automatically Switched Half-Octave Filters Design.; Mixers - The Mathematics of Mixers, Laplace, and Fourier Transforms. Mixer Topologies. The Single-Balanced Mixer. The Double-Balanced Mixer and Its Performance Characteristics. Terminating Mixers and the Diplexer. AM Noise Suppression and Phase Noise Impacts on Transferring Signals in Mixers. Conversion Loss and Noise Figure of Diode Mixers. Two-Tone Intermodulation Performance in Mixers. Compression Point (-1 dB) in Mixers. Desensitization Level and Isolation. Commutative Mixers, FET, and H-Mode Mixers. Integrated Circuit MixersGilbert Cell Mixers. Image-Reject Mixers. Image Recovery Mixers. Mixer Technology Conclusions.; Frequency Synthesizers -Introduction. Definitions. Long-Term and Short-Term Frequency Stability. Residual Phase Noise and Absolute Phase Noise. Allan Variance. Phase Noise and Jitter Concepts. Defining Coherency in Synthesizers. Open Loop Systems: Mixing VFOs with Crystal Oscillators. Synthesizer Forms and Classifications: Brute Force, Direct and Indirect, and Nonbrute Force, Direct and Indirect. The Mixer as a Synthesizer. Digital and Analog Regenerative Dividers. Harmonic Multipliers. Single-Loop Integer Phase-Locked Loop (PLL). Multiple-Loop, Phase-Locked Loop (PLL). Digital Counter/Comparator and Digiphase Synthesizer. Fractional-N and Dual-Modulus Divider Phase-Locked Loop (PLL). The Mixer Phase-Locked Loop (PLL). Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS)-Driven PLL. Foster Seeley and Digital Frequency Discriminators. Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) Key Components. Designing a High-Performance MRU for an HPOI Receiver. Phase Detectors. Amplifier/Loop Filter Trade-Offs. Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO). Modeling Phase Delays in Phase-Locked Loops. Designing a DDS-Driven PLL Synthesizer for the Upconvert, Double Conversion HPOI Receiver. Performance of the DDS-Driven PLL. The Opto-Encoder and Its Application. Key Rules in Designing PLLs. Problems: Design a Synthesized Receiver System for the FM Broadcast Band. Final Concluding Notes to Synthesizers. Additive Noise in PLL Design.; Intermediate Frequency (IF) Receivers - Switched and Cascaded IF Filters. Implementing a High-Performance IF in the Star-10 Receiver. Logarithmic Ifs. Using Logarithmic Amplifi ers in Low-Cost High-Performance ASK Data Receivers. Variable Passband Filters and Analog Ifs. Noise Blankers. The Variable Pulse Noise Blanker and the Star-10 Receiver Noise Blanker. The Notch Filter and the Bandpass Tuning Mechanism.; Automatic Gain Control (AGC) -Introduction. Linear Control SystemsFeedback Systems and Their Signifi cance in Receivers. Achieving High Dynamic Range with AGC: The Concept of Composite Dynamic Range. Deriving and Applying AGC in Receivers. Understanding and Using Logarithmic Detectors. Square-Law Detectors. True-RMS Detectors. Attack and Release Time, Hanged AGC, and the Star-10 AGC System. Audio-Derived AGC. The PIN Diode Attenuator Used for AGC. Digital AGCs. Other Considerations for AGC Detectors.; Product Detectors and Beat Frequency Oscillators (BFO) - I and Q Demodulation Process: The Concept of Demodulation. Other Demodulation Techniques. The Star-10 Receiver Product Detector. Audio and Baseband Amplifier Design Considerations.; The Power Supply; Putting It All Together - Packaging and Mechanical Considerations.; Radio Astronomy and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Receivers ; Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Software-Defined Radio (SDR) -Introduction. Time-Domain and Frequency-Domain Representation of Discrete Time Signals. Baseband Sampling Theory. Bandpass Sampling Theory. Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Conversion. Successive Approximation A/D. Dual-Slope A/D. Flash A/D. Delta-Sigma Modulator A/D. Delta-Sigma, Quantizing, and Noise Shaping. Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Conversion. Staircase Reconstruction. Bit Stream D/A. The Fourier Transform. Discrete and Fast Fourier Transforms. Digital Filters. Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters. Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters. Smoothing WindowsHanning/Hamming, Blackman, and Kaiser Bessel. Phase Noise and Jitter Considerations: Choosing Offsets in Bandpass Digital Signal Processing. Practical Software-Defined Radios (SDR). The ADAT Software-Defined Radio. Other Software-Defined Radios (SDR). Defining Software-Defined Radios (SDR). Cognitive Radio. Conclusions.; Electronic Warfare (EW) Receivers - Probability of Intercept (POI). Crystal Video Receiver. The Compressive (Microscan) Receiver. Instantaneous Frequency Measurement (IFM) Receiver and Digital Instantaneous Frequency Measurement Receiver (DIFM). Phase Detection in Interferometer Receivers. Wideband Swept Superheterodyne Receivers. Narrowband Swept Superheterodyne Receivers. Channelized Bulk Filter (Cued) Receiver. The Bragg Cell or Acousto-Optic Receiver and Ultrawideband Instantaneous Ifs. Conclusions.; Conclusions. About the Author. Index;
  • Cornell Drentea Cornell Drentea is a technical consultant with over 40 years of hands-on experience in the aerospace, telecommunications, and electronics industries. He was previously a senior engineer/scientist at Hughes/Raytheon Systems and a technology leader at the Avionics and Corporate Divisions of Honeywell. He was involved in the design and development of complex terrestrial and satellite communications networks and has made significant contributions in the design and development of RF, radar, guidance, and communications systems at frequencies of up to 100 GHz. Mr. Drentea has developed several state-of-the-art RF products including ultrawideband-high probability of intercept (HPOI) receivers, complex synthesizers, multimodulation transmitters, and frequency agile deep-space transceivers. He holds five patents and has published over 80 professional technical papers and articles in national and international magazines.
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