This book describes methods for making accurate radar measurements of short distances in applications where physical contact with materials is impractical. Sources of error are identified, and methods of reducing these errors are described. Practical test procedures for measuring instruments are also provided. Much of the book is dedicated to providing radar engineers with practical applications, detailing the conditions, equipment, and approach of experimental estimation. With the help of computer simulation, the achievable advantages in accuracy of radar range measurement with various approaches are revealed and quantitatively estimated. Readers are also provided with methods of random process theory and mathematical statistics, along with functional analysis and optimization.
Counting Method of Estimation of Difference Frequency Introduction. Main Calculation Relations. The Traditional Counting Method of Range Measurement. Sources of Range Measurement Errors by the FMCW RangeFinder. Adaptive Control of Frequency Modulation Parameters. Truncation Error of Range Measurement at Adaptive Frequency Modulation. The Range Determination Error Caused by the Inaccuracy of Modulation Adaptation. Noise Influence on the Accuracy of the Range Determination Using the Additive Counting Method Conclusions. ; Weighting Method for the Difference Frequency Averaging Introduction. The Truncation Error of the Weighting Method of Difference Frequency Averaging. Truncation Error Minimization at the Weighting Average Method of Difference Frequency by Optimization of Weighting Function Parameters. Truncation Error Minimization of the Weighting Averaging Method of the Difference Frequency by Optimization of the FM Parameters. Noise Influence on the Error of the Weighting Method of Difference Frequency Averaging. Conclusions.; Estimation of the Difference Frequency by the Position of the Spectrum Maximum Introduction. Algorithms of Difference Frequency Estimation. Estimation of the Difference Frequency on the Basis of the Maximum Position of the Spectral Density of Difference Frequency Signal. Average Weighted Estimation of the Difference Frequency. Systematic Inaccuracy of Frequency Estimation for the Algorithm with Correction Coefficients. Influence of Noise Interference on the Error of Range Measurement. Conclusions.; The Maximal Likelihood Method for Range Estimation According to the Difference Frequency Signal Introduction. Range Estimation Based on the Difference Frequency Signal. Peculiarities of Delay Time Estimation Using the Maximal Likelihood Method. Main Factors Affecting the Measurement Error of Time Delay. Estimation of the Phase Characteristic of FMCW RF. Simulation of the Range Estimation Algorithm. Conclusions.; Effects of FM Nonlinearity Introduction. The Mathematical Model of the Modulation Characteristic. Effects of FM Nonlinearity for the Counting Method of Frequency Measurement. Effects of FM Nonlinearity for the Weighting Method of Difference Frequency Averaging. Connection of the Correction Coefficient with Nonlinearity Parameters of the MC. Estimation of the Correction Coefficient According to the Operating DifferenceFrequency Signal. Compensation of Modulation Characteristic Nonlinearity. Consideration of Modulation Characteristic Nonlinearity at Range Calculation. Conclusions.; Analysis of the Range Measurement Error at the Interference Presence Introduction. The Error Caused by the Single Spurious Signal of the Difference Frequency. The Error Caused by the Influence of Spurious Reflectors in the AntennaWaveguide Path and in the Operating Zone of the FMCW RangeFinder. The Error Caused by the Signal Reflection from the Corner Formed by the Reservoir Vertical Wall and the Liquid Surface. Influence of the Edge Modes Caused by the Restricted Sizes of the Probing Object. Influence of Reflected Waves on the Measurement Error of the FM RangeFinder. Influence of Combination Components in the Mixer of the FMCW RF on the Measurement Error. Conclusions.; Reduction of the Measurement Error at Interference Presence Using Adaptable Weighting Functions Introduction. Estimation of the Interference Situation. Error Minimization of Frequency and Amplitude Estimation of the Weak Signal on the Background of Resolvable Single Interference. Error Reduction of Difference Frequency Estimation of the Signal Received on the Background of Nonresolvable Interference. Error Decrease Caused by the Virtual Reflector. Conclusions. ; Parametrical Methods and Algorithms for Increasing the Measurement Accuracy at the Interference Presence Introduction. Cancellation of Spurious Reflections. Reduction of Spurious Reflector Influence on the Accuracy of the Range Estimation by the Maximal Likelihood Method. Frequency Measurement Using Methods of the Parametric Spectral Analysis. Range Prediction on the Basis of Consideration of the Movement Speed. Conclusions. ; Testing of Precision Measuring Systems of FM ShortRange Radar and Areas of Its Practical Application Introduction. Equipment and Approach for the Experimental Estimation of the FM RF Characteristics. Experimental Reduction of the Error Caused by Virtual Interference. Results of the Experimental Reduction of the Distance Measurement Error by the Control of the Adaptable Weighted Function Parameters. Testing Results of the Parametric Algorithms of the Distance Measurement in the Measuring Test Bench. Areas of Practical Application of the FMCW Radar. Conclusions.; Conclusion; Appendix: Weighting Functions for Harmonic Analysis and Adjacent Problems. List of Acronyms. About the Authors. Index. ;

Boris A. Atayants
Boris A. Atayants is one of the founders of the first radar levelmeters in the Soviet Union. He earned his Ph.D. from Ryazan Radio Engineering University.

Viacheslav M. Davydochkin
Viacheslav M. Davydochkin is chief of the antennafeeder devices sector at JSC. He earned his Ph.D. from Rayzan Radio Engineering University.

Victor V. Ezerskiy
Victor V. Ezerskiy is a professor of radio control and communication at Ryazan State Radio Engineering University. He earned his Ph.D. from Ryazan Radio Engineering University.

Valery S. Parshin
Valery S. Parshin is associateprofessor of radio control and communication at Ryazan State Radio Engineering University. He earned his Ph.D. from Ryazan Radio Engineering University.

Sergey M. Smolskiy
Sergey M. Smolskiy is a professor at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute, National Research University, Russia. He holds a Ph.D. in radio engineering and a Dr.Sc. in radar technology from that same university.