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Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

By (author)s: John D. Cressler, Guofu Niu
Copyright: 2002
Pages: 589
ISBN: 9781580535991

This informative, new resource presents the first comprehensive treatment of silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs). It offers you a complete, from-the-ground-up understanding of SiGe HBT devices and technology, from a very broad perspective. The book covers motivation, history, materials, fabrication, device physics, operational principles, and circuit-level properties associated with this new cutting-edge semiconductor device technology. Including over 400 equations and more than 300 illustrations, this hands-on reference shows you in clear and concise language how to design, simulate, fabricate, and measure a SiGe HBT. Moreover, the book helps you gain a thorough understanding of the subtle optimization issues and design tradeoffs of SiGe HBTs and RF/microwave circuits built with this technology. The book explains how SiGe HBTs offer the high-performance associated with III-V devices such as GaAs and InP, while preserving the low-cost, high-integration level, high yield, and economy-of-scale benefits of conventional silicon IC manufacturing. You discover why SiGe technology offers a unique solution for 21st century communications IC needs.
Preface.; Introduction - The Magic of Silicon. Integrated Circuit Needs for the 21st Century. Application-Induced Design Constraints. The Dream: Bandgap Engineering in Silicon. The SiGe HBT. A Brief History of SiGe Technology. SiGe HBT Performance Trends. The IC Technology Battleground: Si vs SiGe vs III-V. ; SiGe Strained-Layer Epitaxy - SiGe Alloys. SiGe Growth. Stability Constraints. Band Structure. Transport Parameters. Open Issues.; SiGe HBT BiCMOS Technology - Integration Issues. SiGe HBT Structural Evolution. Profile Control and Design Tradeoffs. Carbon Doping of SiGe HBTs. Reliability Issues. CMOS Integration. Passives. The Bottom Line.; Static Characteristics - Intuitive Picture. Output Conductance. Equivalent Circuit Models. Avalanche Multiplication. Breakdown Voltages. ; Dynamic Characteristics -Intuitive Picture. Charge Modulation Effects. Basic RF Performance Factors. Linear Two-Port Parameters. Stability, MAG, MSG, and Mason 's U. Base and Emitter Transit Times. ECL Gate Delay. ; Second Order Phenomena - Ge Grading Effects. Neutral Base Recombination. Heterojunction Barrier Effects. ; Noise - Fundamental Noise Characteristics. Linear Noisy Two-port Network Theory. Analytical Modeling. Optimal Sizing and Biasing for LNA Design. SiGe Profile Design Tradeoffs. Low-Frequency Noise. Substrate and Cross-Talk Noise. ; Linearity - Nonlinearity Concepts. Physical Nonlinearities. Volterra Series. Single HBT Amplifier Linearity. Cascode LNA Linearity. ; Temperature Effects - The Impact of Temperature on Bipolar Transistors. Cryogenic Operation of SiGe HBTs. Optimization of SiGe HBTs for 77 K. Helium Temperature Operation. Non-Equilibrium Base Transport. High-Temperature Operation.; Other Device Design Issues -Design of p-n-p SiGe HBTs. Arbitrary Band Alignments. Ge-Induced Collector-Base Field Effects. ; Radiation Tolerance - Radiation Concepts and Damage Mechanisms. The Effects of Radiation on SiGe HBTs. Technology Scaling Issues. Circuit-level Tolerance. Single Event Upset. ; Device Simulation - Semiconductor Equations. Application Issues. Probing Internal Device Operation. ; Future Directions - Technology Trends. Performance Limits.; Properties of Silicon and Germanium. ; About the Authors.;
  • John D. Cressler John D. Cressler is Professor of electrical and computer engineering at The Georgia Institute of Technology . Professor Cressler received his Ph.D. in applied physics from Columbia University.
  • Guofu Niu Guofu Niu is Associate Professor of electrical and computer engineering at Auburn University. He received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from Fudan University, in Shanghai, China.
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