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The Fiber-Optic Gyroscope, Second Edition

The Fiber-Optic Gyroscope, Second Edition

By (author): Herve C. Lefevre
Copyright: 2014
Pages: 416
ISBN: 9781608076956

Print Book $186.00 Qty:
eBook $186.00 Qty:
Written by one of the field 's leading experts, this landmark reference presents a thorough system analysis of the fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG), describing the concepts that have emerged as the preferred solutions for obtaining a practical device. This book 's first edition was published in the early 1990's. If the basic design rules of the FOG have remained unchanged, the technology has certainly matured, and the expectations presented in the first edition have been largely exceeded. This second edition is updated throughout, featuring new content on Allan variance; testing with optical coherence domain polarimetry; the Shupe effect; and rare-Earth doped fiber ASE sources. In addition, brand new comprehensive appendixes cover the optics, single-mode fiber optics, and integrated optics necessary to understand the fiber gyro and provide an appropriate vocabulary for communicating with electronic component designers.
Introduction ; Principle of the Fiber-Optic Gyroscope - Sagnac Effect. A History of Optics from Aether to Relativity. Sagnac Effect in a Vacuum. Sagnac Effect in a Medium. Active and Passive Ring Resonators. Ring-Laser Gyroscope (RLG). Resonant Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (R-FOG). Passive Fiber-Ring Interferometer. Principle of the Interferometric Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (I-FOG). Theoretical Sensitivity of the I-FOG. Noise, Drift, and Scale Factor. Evaluation of Noise and Drift by Allan Variance (or Allan Deviation). Bandwidth. References. ; Reciprocity of a Fiber Ring Interferometer - Principle of Reciprocity. Single-Mode Reciprocity of Wave Propagation. Reciprocal Behavior of a Beam Splitter. Minimum Configuration of a Ring Fiber Interferometer. Reciprocal Configuration. Reciprocal Biasing Modulation-Demodulation. Proper (or Eigen) Frequency. Reciprocity with All-Guided Schemes. Evanescent-Field Coupler (or X-Coupler or Four-Port Coupler). Y-Junction. All-Fiber Approach. Hybrid Architectures with Integrated Optics: Y-Coupler. Configuration. Problem of Polarization Reciprocity. Rejection Requirement with Ordinary Single-Mode Fiber. Use of Polarization-Maintaining (PM) Fiber. Use of Depolarizer. Use of an Unpolarized Source. References. ; Backreflection and Backscattering - Problem of Backreflection. Reduction of Backreflection with Slant Interfaces. Influence of Source Coherence. Problem of Backscattering. Coherent Backscattering. Use of a Broadband Source. Evaluation of the Residual Rayleigh Backscattering Noise. References. ; Analysis of Polarization Nonreciprocities with Broadband Source and High-Birefringence Polarization - Maintaining Fiber - Depolarization Effect in High-Birefringence Polarization-Maintaining Fibers. Analysis of Polarization Nonreciprocities in a Fiber Gyroscope Using an All-Polarization-Maintaining Waveguide Configuration. Intensity-Type Effects. Comment About Length of Depolarization Ld Versus Length of Polarization Correlation Lpc. Amplitude-Type Effects. Use of a Depolarizer. Testing with Optical Coherence Domain Polarimetry (OCDP). Based on Path-Matched White-Light Interferometry. OCDP Using Optical Spectrum Analysis. References. ; Time Transience-Related Nonreciprocal Effects - Effect of Temperature Transience: The Shupe Effect. Symmetrical Windings. Stress-Induced T-Dot Effect. Basics of Heat Diffusion and Temporal Signature of the Shupe and T-Dot Effects. Effect of Acoustic Noise and Vibration. References.; Truly Nonreciprocal Effects - Magneto-Optic Faraday Effect. Transverse Magneto-Optic Effect. Nonlinear Kerr Effect. References. ; Scale Factor Linearity and Accuracy - Problem of Scale Factor Linearity and Accuracy. Closed-Loop Operation Methods to Linearize the Scale Factor. Use of a Frequency Shift. Use of an Analog Phase Ramp (or Serrodyne Modulation). Use of a Digital Phase Ramp. All-Digital Closed-Loop Processing Method. Control of the Gain of the Modulation Chain with Four-State Modulation. Potential Spurious Lock-In (or Deadband) Effect. Scale Factor Accuracy. Problem of Scale Factor Accuracy. Wavelength Dependence of an Interferometer Response with a Broadband Source. Effect of Phase Modulation. Wavelength Control Schemes. Mean Wavelength Change with a Parasitic Interferometer or Polarimeter. References. ; Recapitulation of the Optimal Operating Conditions and Technologies of the I-FOG - Optimal Operating Conditions. Broadband Source. Superluminescent Diode. Rare-Earth Doped Fiber ASE Sources. Excess RIN Compensation Techniques. Sensing Coil. The Heart of the Interferometer. Detector and Processing Electronics. References. ; Alternative Approaches for the I-FOG - Alternative Optical Configurations. Alternative Signal Processing Schemes. Open-Loop Scheme with Use of Multiple Harmonics. Second Harmonic Feedback. Gated Phase Modulation Feedback. Heterodyne and Pseudo-Heterodyne Schemes. Beat Detection with Phase Ramp Feedback. Dual-Phase Ramp Feedback. Extended Dynamic Range with Multiple Wavelength Source. References. ; Resonant Fiber-Optic Gyroscope (R-FOG) - Principle of Operation of an All-Fiber Ring Cavity. Signal Processing Method. Reciprocity of a Ring Fiber Cavity. Introduction. Basic Reciprocity Within the Ring Resonator. Excitation and Detection of Resonances in a Ring Resonator. Other Parasitic Effects in the R-FOG. Acknowledgments. References.; Conclusions - The State of Development and Expectations in 1993. The Present State of the Art, Two Decades Later. FOG Versus RLG. FOG Manufacturers. Trends for the Future and Concluding Remarks. References. ; Appendix A: Fundamentals of Optics for the Fiber Gyroscope - Basic Parameters of an Optical Wave: Wavelength, Frequency, and Power. Spontaneous Emission, Stimulated Emission, and Related Noises. Fundamental Photon Noise. Spontaneous Emission and Excess Relative Intensity Noise (Excess RIN). Resonant Stimulated Emission in a Laser Source. Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE). Propagation Equation in a Vacuum. State of Polarization of an Optical Wave. Propagation in a Dielectric Medium. Index of Refraction. Chromatic Dispersion, Group Velocity, and Group Velocity .Dispersion E and B, or E and H?. Dielectric Interface. Refraction, Partial Reflection, and Total Internal Reflection. Dielectric Waveguidance. Geometrical Optics. Rays and Phase Wavefronts. Plane Mirror and Beam Splitter. Lenses. Interferences. Principle of Two-Wave Interferometry. Most Common Two-Wave Interferometers: Michelson and Mach-Zehnder Interferometers, Young Double-Slit. Channeled Spectral Response of a Two-Wave Interferometer. Multiple-Wave Interferences. Fabry-Perot Interferometer. Ring Resonant Cavity. Multilayer Dielectric Mirror and Bragg Reflector. Bulk-Optic Diffraction Grating. Diffraction. Fresnel Diffraction and Fraunhofer Diffraction. Knife-Edge Fresnel Diffraction. Gaussian Beam. Coherence. Basics of Coherence. Mathematical Derivation of Temporal Coherence. The Concept of a Wave Train. The Case of an Asymmetrical Spectrum. The Case of Propagation in a Dispersive Medium. Birefringence. Birefringence Index Difference. Change of Polarization with Birefringence. Interference with Birefringence. Optical Spectrum Analysis. Reference. Selected Bibliography.; Appendix B: Fundamentals of Fiber Optics for the Fiber Gyroscope - Main Characteristics of a Single-Mode Optical Fiber. Attenuation of a Silica Fiber. Gaussian Profile of the Fundamental Mode. Beat Length and h Parameter of a PM Fiber. Protective Coating. Temperature Dependence of Propagation in a PM Fiber. Discrete Modal Guidance in a Step-Index Fiber. Guidance in a Single-Mode (SM) Fiber. Amplitude Distribution of the Fundamental LP01 Mode. Equivalent Index neq and Phase Velocity vϕ of the Fundamental LP01 Mode. Group Index ng of the Fundamental LP01 Mode. Case of a Parabolic Index Profile. Modes of a Few-Mode Fiber. Coupling in a Single-Mode Fiber and Its Loss Mechanisms. Free-Space Coupling. Misalignment Coupling Losses. Mode-Diameter Mismatch Loss of LP01 Mode. Mode Size Mismatch Loss of LP11 and LP21 Modes. Birefringence in a Single-Mode Fiber. Shape-Induced Linear Birefringence. Stress-Induced Linear and Circular Birefringence. Combination of Linear and Circular Birefringence Effects. Polarization-Maintaining (PM) Fibers. Principle of Conservation of Polarization. Residual Polarization Crossed-Coupling. Depolarization of Crossed-Coupling with a Broadband Source. Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD). Polarizing (PZ) Fiber. All-Fiber Components. Evanescent-Field Coupler and Wavelength Multiplexer. Piezoelectric Phase Modulator. Polarization Controller. Lyot Depolarizer. Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). Pigtailed Bulk-Optic Components. General Principle. Optical Isolator. Optical Circulator. Rare-Earth-Doped Amplifying Fiber. Microstructured Optical Fiber (MOF). Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fibers. Selected Bibliography. ; Appendix C: Fundamentals of Integrated Optics for the Fibergyroscope - Principle and Basic Functions of LiNbO3 Integrated Optics. Channel Waveguide. Coupling Between an Optical Fiber and an Integrated-Optic Waveguide. Fundamental Mode Profile and Equivalence with an LP11 Fiber Mode. Mismatch Coupling Attenuation Between a Fiber and a Waveguide. Low-Driving-Voltage Phase Modulator. Beam Splitting. Polarization Rejection and Birefringence-Induced Depolarization. Ti-Indiffused LiNbO3 Integrated Optics. Ti-Indiffused Channel Waveguide. Phase Modulation and Metallic-Overlay Polarizer with Ti-Indiffused Waveguide. Proton-Exchanged LiNbO3 Integrated Optics. Single-Polarization Propagation. Phase Modulation in Proton-Exchanged Waveguide. Theoretical Polarization Rejection of a Proton-Exchanged LiNbO3 Circuit. Practical Polarization Rejection of Proton-Exchanged LiNbO3 Circuit. Improved Polarization Rejection with Absorbing Grooves. Spurious Intensity Modulation. Selected Bibliography. ; Appendix D: Electromagnetic Theory of the Relativistic Sagnac Effect - Special Relativity and Electromagnetism. Electromagnetism in a Rotating Frame. Case of a Rotating Toroidal Dielectric Waveguide. Selected Bibliography. ; Appendix E: Basics of Inertial Navigation - Introduction. Inertial Sensors. Accelerometers (Acceleration Sensors). Gyroscopes (Rotation Rate Sensors). Classification of the Inertial Sensor Performance. Navigation Computation. A Bit of Geodesy. Reference Frames. Orientation, Velocity, and Position Computation. Altitude Computation. Attitude and Heading Initialization. Attitude Initialization. Heading Initialization with Gyrocompassing. Velocity and Position Initialization. Orders of Magnitude to Remember. Selected Bibliography. ; List of Abbreviations. List of Symbols. About the Author ;
  • Herve C. Lefevre Herve C. Lefevre is Chief Scientific Officer of iXBlue in France. He earned his doctorate in optics-photonics from the University of Paris-Orsay in 1979. His doctorate research was performed at Thales (formerly Thomson-CSF) Central Research Laboratory and his thesis subject was pioneering work on the fiber-optic gyroscope.
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