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Meter-Wave Synthetic Aperture Radar for Concealed Object Detection

Meter-Wave Synthetic Aperture Radar for Concealed Object Detection

By (author): Hans Hellsten
Copyright: 2017
Pages: 348
ISBN: 9781630810252

Hardback $179.00 Qty:

This unique resource presents the principles of meter wave ground imaging radar focusing on foliage penetration. Scattering of VHF/UHF radar signals are presented including the basic laws of electromagnetism, homogeneous media, media discontinuities/non-flat media discontinuities, and ground reflectivity. The book introduces meter wavelength synthetic aperture radar, bandwidth, and SAR imaging principles, including moving objects and also compares collected SAR data.


Meter wavelength SAR system design and processing is explored, highlighting low frequency SAR design aspects, characterization of additive noise, antenna system basics, waveforms and emission adaptation which is critical material to the advancement in sensors and signal processing for below ground imaging by the energy industry and governments worldwide. The FFBP method of processing, explicit treatment of base 2 FFBP is explained along with motion errors sensitivity and motion estimation methods. The book also explains the Bayesian change detection, covariance moving target extraction and polarimetric subsurface imaging.

This Book-Why and How; Scattering of VHF/UHF Radar Signals; Meter Wavelength Synthetic Aperture Radar; Meter Wavelength SAR System Design; Meter Wavelength SAR Processing; Multi Data Target Detection.

  • Hans Hellsten

    is a senior radar expert and product manager/principal engineer at Saab EDS. He received his Ph.D. in theoretical physics from the University of Stockholm.


Review by: Fabio Rocca, Telecommunications Politecnico di Milano - May 31, 2017

In this formation book, the reader will find a fresh and complete Synthetic Aperture Radar education. The multi decadal experience of Dr. Hellsten in studying, designing, testing, and operating the well-known Swedish low frequency SAR system Carabas has been condensed in a quite readable book. The mathematical competence of the author joint with his creative engineering experience accompanies the reader from the prime principles derivation of the Maxwell equations to say the design of the antennas, the evaluation of the attenuation due to a hedge of trees, the effects of Radio Frequency Interferences, the complete discussion of the effects on the scatter of vertical or horizontal polarization of the impinging waves, etc. etc. The methodologies to design the system are explained in detail, from the prime principles, as said, to the very efficient but complex SAR focusing technique known as Fast Factorized Back Projections, very well fit to accommodate airplane motion compensation. The reader is patiently accompanied through the complexities of the low frequency radar systems where the simple and approximate solutions that are well known do not apply, and everything has to be derived from the beginnings with mathematical precision: the scatterers are spheres and cylinders, not easy mirrors, at these frequencies likely to be too big to be feasible. The antenna gain is to be derived carefully and height and length are not enough: however, the mathematical tools are well explained and the reader is never left alone but always accompanied to the correct solution, as demonstrated by the experimental results. Finally, the reader has the correct impression to have been directed to command the field, as the author indeed does. In fact, the implementation of the system on helicopters and planes is also studied, as well as the effects of the scatter on an uneven and rough terrain. Finally, the effects on focusing of moving targets are discussed with precision, from the easy constant velocity case to the accelerated and random motion.


The author is to be deeply admired for his technical grasp, the clarity of the derivations, indeed always concise but nonetheless understandable and clear, and thanked for the masterful guidance of the readers through all the technical difficulties towards the commendable goal of an efficient and innovative system.

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