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The advent of lithium ion batteries has brought a significant shift in the area of large format battery systems. Previously limited to heavy and bulky lead-acid storage batteries, large format batteries were used only where absolutely necessary as a means of energy storage. The improved energy density, cycle life, power capability, and durability of lithium ion cells has given us electric and hybrid vehicles with meaningful driving range and performance, grid-tied energy storage systems for integration of renewable energy and load leveling, backup power systems and other applications. This book discusses battery management system (BMS) technology for large format lithium-ion battery packs from a systems perspective. This resource covers the future of BMS, giving us new ways to generate, use, and store energy, and free us from the perils of non-renewable energy sources. This book provides a full update on BMS technology, covering software, hardware, integration, testing, and safety.
Table Of Contents
Introduction - Battery Management Systems and Applications. State of the Art. Challenges. ; Lithium-Ion Battery Fundamentals - Battery Operation. Battery Construction. Battery Chemistry. Safety. Longevity. Performance. Integration. ; Large-Format Systems - Definition. Balance of Plant. Load Interface. Variation and Divergence. Application Parameters. ; System Description - Typical Inputs. Typical Outputs. Typical Functions. Summary. ; Architectures - Monolithic. Distributed. Semi-Distributed. Connection Methods. Additional Scalability. Battery Pack Architectures. Power Supply. Control Power. Computing Architecture.; Measurement - Cell Voltage Measurement. Current Measurement. Synchronization of Current and Voltage. Temperature Measurement. Measurement Uncertainty and Battery Management System Performance. Interlock Status. ; Control - Contactor Control. Soft Start or Precharge Circuits. Control Topologies. Contactor Opening Transients. Chatter Detection. Economizers. Contactor Topologies. Contactor Fault Detection.; Battery Management System Functionality - Charging Strategies. Thermal Management. Operational Modes.; High-Voltage Electronics Fundamentals - High-Voltage DC Hazards. Safety of High-Voltage Electronics. Conductive Anodic Filaments. Floating Measurements. HV Isolation. ESD Suppression on Isolated Devices. Isolation Detection.; Communications - Overview. Network Technologies. Network Design.; Battery Models - Overview. Thevenin Equivalent Circuit. Hysteresis. Coulombic Efficiency. Nonlinear Elements. Self-Discharge Modeling. Physics-Based Battery Models. State-Space Representations of Battery Models.; Parameter Identification - Brute-Force Approach. Online Parameter Identification. SOC/OCV Characterization. Kalman Filtering. Recursive Least Squares. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.; Limit Algorithms - Purpose. Goals. Limit Strategy. Determining Safe Operating Area. Temperature. SOC/DOD. Cell Voltage. Faults. First-Order Predictive Power Limit. Polarization-Dependent Limit. Limit Violation Detection. Limits with Multiple Parallel Strings.; Charge Balancing - Balancing Strategies. Balancing Optimization. Charge Transfer Balancing. Dissipative Balancing. Balancing Faults.; State-of-Charge Estimation Algorithms - Overview. Challenges. Definitions. Coulomb Counting. SOC Corrections. OCV Measurements. Temperature Compensation. Kalman Filtering. Other Observer Methods.; State-of-Health Estimation Algorithms - State of Health. Mechanisms of Failure. Predictive SOH Models. Impedance Detection. Capacity Estimation. Self-Discharge Detection. Parameter Estimation. Dual-Loop System. Remaining Useful Life Estimation. Particle Filters. ; Fault Detection - Overview. Failure Detection. Reaction Strategies. ; Hardware Implementation - Packaging and Product Development. Battery Management System IC Selection. Component Selection. Circuit Design. Layout. EMC. Power Supply Architectures. Manufacturing. ; Software Implementation - Safety-Critical Software. Design Goals. Analysis of Safety-Critical Software. Validation and Coverage. Model Implementation. Balancing. Temperature Impact on State of Charge Estimation. ; Safety - Functional Safety. Hazard Analysis. Safety Goals. Safety Concepts and Strategies. Reference Design for Safety. ; Data Collection - Lifetime Data Gathering. ; Robustness and Reliability - Failure Mode Analysis. Environmental Durability. Abuse Conditions. Reliability Engineering. ; Best Practice - Engineering System Development. Industry Standards. Quality. ; Future Developments - Subcell Modeling. Adaptive Algorithms. Advanced Safety. System Integration. ;