By (author): James A. Crawford

Copyright: 2007
Pages: 510
ISBN: 9781596931404

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This practical reference offers a unified approach to phase-lock technology, spanning large and small signal-to-noise applications. It takes you from continuous-time systems through hybrid time-sampled systems to fractional-N synthesis techniques. The book also looks at bit-synchronization in the context of phased-lock loop methods. You find expanded coverage of frequency synthesis that examines techniques used to develop RFICs for WiMAX and WCDMA applications. The book includes numerous computer simulation techniques that enable you to analyze phase-locked systems and create accurate simulation methods for noise. You get a precise, detailed explanation at Delta-Sigma techniques that give you a clearer understanding of fractional-N synthesis and let you develop your own Delta-Sigma methods. Moreover, this unique resource gives you new insight into how phase noise affects bit-error rate and the performance of transmitters and receivers. More than 1,500 equations and figures support key topics throughout the book.
Table Of Contents

Frequency and Time Control Systems: A High-Level PerspectiveFrequency and Time Domain Perspectives. Phase-Locked Loops. Control System ¬?Perspective (High SNR). Estimation Theoretic Perspective Low (SNR). Example Applications. References. System Guidelines and Design FormulasSynthesizer Architectures. Wireless Systems. A/D and D/A Conversion. Frequency Mixers, Dividers, and Multipliers. Summary of Continuous-Time Classic Type-2 Second-Order PLLs. Summary of Continuous-Time Classic Type-2 Fourth-Order PLL Design Formulas. Summary of Continuous-Time 9 Decibel per Octave PLL Design Formulas. Summary of Hybrid Phase-Locked Loop Design Formulas. Summary of Discrete-Time Phase-Locked Loop Design Formulas. Summary of RF Synthesis Design Formulas. Summary of ADC and DAC Clock Design Formula. Summary of Bit Synchronizer Design Formulas. Summary of Analog Filter Design Formulas. Summary of Oscillator Design Formula. Summary of Phase Noise Effects on Digital Communications Systems. Time and Frequency Control Related Terminology. References. ; Fundamental LimitsBessel Functions (FM). Cauchy Schwartz Inequality. Chernoff Bound. Cramer-Rao Bound. Fano Broadband Matching Theorem. Leeson/Scherer Model. Matched Filter Bound. Nyquist Sampling Theorem. Paley-Werner Condition. Shannon Rate-Distortion Theorem. Strong Law of Large Numbers. Time-Bandwidth Product. Uncertainty Principle. Weak Law of Large Numbers. Weiner-Khinchine Theorem. References. ; Detailed System Performance Loss AnalysisPhase Noise Origins. Local Oscillator Phase Noise Impact Upon Transmit and Receive Spectra. Clock Noise Impact upon ADC and DAC Performance. Local Oscillator Phase Noise Impact upon Digital Communication Error Rate Performance. References. ; General Noise TheoryPhase Noise First Principles. Power Spectral Density Concept. Stationary versus Cyclostationary Proceses. Modeling Phase Noise Processes. Discrete Spurious Contaminations. Local Oscillator Phase Noise Effects on Receive and Transmit Spectra. Memoryless Nonlinearity Effects on Transmit Spectra. References. ; Fundamental Concepts for Continuous-Time SystemsPhase-Locked Basics. Pseudo-Continuous Phase Detector Models. Modeling Time Delays in Continuous-Time Systems. Frequency-Domain Analysis. Transient Response Evaluation for Continuous-Time Systems. References. ; Fundamental Concepts for Sampled-Data Control SystemsSampled-Data Control System Basics. Frequency-Domain Analysis. Stability Assessment. Time-Domain Analysis. Closed-Form Sample-Data System Results. Phase Noise Assessments with Sampled-Data Systems. Appendix-Derivation of Closed Form Results. References. ; Fractional-N Frequency SynthesizersAnalog-Based Correction. Delta-Sigma-Based Correction. Delta-Sigma Architectures. Caveats of Delta-Sigma Fractional-N Synthesizers Dithering and Randomization Techniques. References. ; OscillatorsNegative Resistance Oscillator Model. Leeson 's Model. Extensions and Implications of Leeson 's Model. Nonlinear Oscillator Models. Injection Locking. Load-Pulling. Oscillator Pushing. Oscillator Coupling. VCO Tuning Characteristics. Differential Tuning Oscillators. Multi-band Methods. Oscillator Topologies. ; Bit Synchronization and Clock RecoveryBaseband Systems. Wireless Systems. References.;


  • James A. Crawford James A. Crawford is a consultant for AM1, LLC, based in San Diego, California. At AM1, he has performed technology development and technical management of communications systems and products for commercial and consumer applications. The author of Frequency Synthesizer Design Handbook (Artech House, 1994), he holds a B.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln and an M.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California.