Integrated circuits have become smaller, cheaper, and more reliable and certainly have revolutionized the world of electronics. Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic devices and systems, many of which, such as the Internet, computers, and mobile phones, have become essential parts of modern life and have changed the way we live. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) provides a revolutionary approach to computing with device-to-device interactions. The design of a QCA circuit is radically different from a conventional digital design due to its unique characteristics at both the physical level and logic level. Research on both circuit architecture and device design is required for a profound understanding of QCA nanotechnologies. This detailed reference presents practical design aspects of QCA with an emphasis on developing real-world implementations.
Table Of Contents
Introduction - Motivation. Contributions. Book Outline. ; Quantum-dot Cellular Automata - QCA Fundamentals. Physical Implementations of QCA. Clocking Schemes. Design and Simulation Tools. Research Into QCA Digital Design. Basic Design Rules. Summary. ; QCA Adders -Introduction. Ripple Carry Adder. Carry Lookahead Adder. Conditional Sum Adder. Comparison of the Conventional Adders. Carry Flow Adder. Decimal Adder. Conclusion. ; QCA Multipliers -Introduction. QCA Array Multipliers. Wallace and Dadda Multipliers For QCA. Quasi-Modular Multipliers For QCA. Comparison of QCA Multipliers. Conclusion. ; QCA Dividers -Introduction. Digit Recurrent Divider. Convergent Divider. Conclusion. ; Design of QCA Circuits Using Cut-Set Retiming -Introduction. QCA Timing Constraints and Timing Issues. Data Flow Graph and Retiming Technique. A Cut-Set Retiming Design Procedure. Case Studies. Conclusion. ; QCA Systolic Array Design -Introduction. Signal Flow Graph and Systolic Array Architecture. Case Study I: Matrix Multiplier. Case Study II: Galois Field Multiplier. QCA Systolic Array Design Methodology. Conclusion. ; Evaluation of QCA Circuits with New Cost Functions -Introduction. QCA Cost Metrics and Cost Functions. Overview of QCA Adders. Comparison of QCA Adders with Proposed Cost Functions. Conclusion. ; Conclusion and Future Work - Conclusion. Future Work. ;