Electrostimulation is defined as the action of electrical energy on nerve and muscle - the two classes of excitable tissue. This cutting-edge resource offers you broad coverage of the subject, expanding the scope of electrostimulation discussions to include accidental, aversive, and possibly harmful biological effects of electrical energy. The book enables you to develop standards for human exposure to electric currents having various waveforms, determine classes of nerve fibers brought to excitation within specified regions of the body due to certain types of exposure, and quantify how harmonic distortions influence the excitability of sinusoidal extrostimulation.
This practical reference also offers guidance in using the SENN (Spatially Extended Nonlinear Node) computer model that simulates the interaction of applied electric energy with myelinated neurons. Moreover, you learn how to compare efficacy and hazard potential of various stun weapons, assess unintended nerve stimulation from MRI exposure of patients with metallic implants, and compare the safety margins between electrostimulation thresholds of sensory and motor neurons relative to unintended cardiac excitation or painful sensory responses.
The authors have made available for download the following supplementary material.
Click here to download Figure 8.8 in MS Word format.
Click here to download Figure 10.1 in MS Word format.
Click here to download SENN Model files for PC.
Click here to download SENN Model files for MAC.
Table Of Contents
Part I Theory and Applications; Introduction - Excitable Tissue. Predictive Models. Overview.; Theoretical Foundations - Basic Equations. Cable Equation Relationships. Spatial Relationships. Mechanisms of Interaction. Alternative Models for Membrane Electrodynamics. Research Topics for Chapter 2.; Excitation Relationships - Threshold of Excitation. Strength-Duration Relationships. Power Supply Demand. Nonlinear Interaction of Multiple Stimulus Waveforms. Repetitive Stimulus Effects. Research Topics for Chapter 3. ; Threshold Criteria in Practical Applications - General Principles. Threshold Relationships. Research Topics for Chapter 4.; Selective Activation and Inhibition - General Aspects. Fiber Diameter Relationships. Selective Activation or Inhibition. Research Topics for Chapter 5.; Model Application to C-Fibers and the Heart - General Objectives. Electrostimulation of Nerve Fibers and Cardiac Muscle. Electrostimulation Characteristics of Cardiac Tissue. SENN Model Adaptation for A-Fibers, C-Fibers, and Cardiac Stimulation. Modifi ed SENN Results. Discussion. Research Topics for Chapter 6.; Waveform and Polarity Effects - Effects of Electrode Size and Distance. Sinusoidal Stimulation. Polarity Relationships. Waveform Effects and Electrical Dosimetry. Recruitment Volume. Research Topics for Chapter 7.; Exposure Guidelines and Standards - Magnetic Resonance Imaging Exposure. Exposure Standards for the General Public and Occupational Groups. Detailed Anatomical Models. Research Topics for Chapter 8.; Electrostimulation of the Central Nervous System -Introduction. SENN Model Representation. Stimulation of the Cortex with Transcranial Electrostimulation. Electrical Induction of Brain Seizures. Synaptic Mechanisms. The Spinal Cord. Research Topics for Chapter 9.; Electric Stun Devices and Electric Shock -Introduction. Overview of Electric Stun Devices. Conducted Energy Waveforms. Conduction Paths with Arc Gaps. Mechanisms in CEW Electrostimulation. Physiological Responses and Risks. Reported Adverse Reactions in Law Enforcement. Outstanding Uncertainties Regarding CEW Hazards. Research Topics for Chapter 10.; Part II User 's Guide; Getting Started -Introduction. Model Installation and Test. ; Operating the Model - Launching and Terminating an Operation. Input Parameter Listing with Brief Descriptions. Temporal and Spatial Components of Stimulation. Other Key Parameter Details. Programming Alternative Electrodynamics. ; Stimulus Temporal Waveform and Spatial Field Modes -Introduction to Stimulus Modes. Polarity Considerations. Internally Generated Temporal Waveforms. Externally Specifi ed Temporal Waveforms and Spatial Field Contours. ; Output Files for Analysis and Diagnostics - Discussion of Need to Scrutinize Results. Diagnostic Files fort.17, fort.30, and data.out. Test Case: High-Frequency Sinewave. ; Appendices. Used in This Book. Acronyms and Abbreviations. References. About the Authors. Index.;