This practical resource provides a current and comprehensive treatment of GPS/GNSS antennas, taking into account modernized systems and new and developing applications. The book presents a number of key applications, describing corresponding receiver architectures and antenna details. You find important discussions on antenna characteristics, including theory of operation, gain, bandwidth, polarization, phase center, mutual coupling effects, and integration with active components. Moreover, you get expert guidance on the design of adaptive arrays and signal processing techniques used to mitigate interference such as jamming. Addressing critical GNSS antenna high precision requirements, this in-depth book explains the relationships between antenna gain, satellite visibility, geometric dilution of precision, and the carrier-to-noise density ratio. The book delineates requirements for both dual-band and tri-band antennas. You get detailed coverage of a wide range of antenna designs, including microstrip patch, quadrafilar helix, axial mode helix, spiral, inverted L, and planar inverted F antennas. Moreover, you find a discussion on new magnetic metamaterialù substrates and other dielectric substrate materials. Further, this comprehensive book presents designs for very compact GNSS antennas for personal handheld devices and automobiles.
Table Of Contents
Introduction to GNSS Antenna Performance Parameters - Role of an Antenna in GNSS and its Key Requirements. Summary of Satellite Navigation Systems. Polarization and Radiation Pattern of a GNSS Antenna. Directivity and Gain of a GNSS Antenna. Phase Center of a GNSS Antenna. Group Delay Variation in GNSS Antennas. Propagation and Multipath Errors in GNSS Measurements. Antenna-Induced Errors in GNSS Measurements. Differencing Techniques for Removal of Bias Errors in GNSS Measurements. Differencing of GPS Data for Removal of Antenna-Induced Carrier Phase Errors. Differential GPS and RTK Measurements. Techniques for Removal and Estimation of Carrier Phase Windup Errors Caused by a Rotating Antenna. The Susceptibility of a Commercial GPS C/A Code Receiver to Interference and Jamming. Architecture of a GNSS Receiver. Effects of Interference and Jamming on Tracking Loop Thresholds of a GPS Receiver. Carrier to Noise Ratio of an Antenna and Receiver Front End at Masking Elevationù of 5¬8 in the GPS and Galileo Frequency Bands for Quiescent Conditions (Absence of Interference or Jamming). Effective Carrier-to-Noise Ratio in the Presence of Interference or Jamming. ; FRPAs and High-Gain Directional Antennas - Categories of GNSS Antennas. Microstrip Antennas. Quadrifilar Helix Antenna. Hexafilar Slot Antenna for GPS. Planar and Drooping Bow-Tie Turnstile Antennas for GNSS. Directional GNSS Antennas. Beamforming Antenna Arrays. ; Multiband, Handset, and Active GNSS Antennas -Introduction. Multiband GNSS Antennas. Current Technology for Multiband GNSS Antennas. Performance Requirements for Geodetic-Grade Multiband GNSS Antennas. Geodetic-Grade Multiband GNSS Antennas Using New Ground Plane Technology. GNSS Geodetic-Grade Antennas Based on Spiral Antenna Technology. Microstrip and Other Wideband Antennas Designs for GNSS. GNSS Antennas for Handset. Design of Handset Antennas: Requirements and Technical Challenges. Representative GPS Antenna Designs Used in Handsets. Active GNSS Antennas and the Use of the G/T Ratio as Its Performance Metric. G/T Measurement of an Active GNSS Antenna. ; Adaptive GPS Antennas -Introduction. Two-Element Adaptive Array. Space-Time Adaptive Array. Covariance Matrix Estimate. Dual-Polarized Antenna Array. Performance Measures. Direction Finding. Array Phase Center. Typical Results.; Ground Plane, Aircraft Fuselage, and Other Platform Effects on GPS Antennas -Introduction. Microstrip Antenna on a Planar Ground Plane. Mitigation of Ground Plane Effects on Performance of GPS Antennas. Radiation Patterns of Aircraft Mounted GPS Microstrip Antennas and Verification Through Scale Model Testing. Radiation Pattern Analysis of a GPS Antenna on an Automobile. Body Interaction with a Handheld GPS Antenna. ; Measurement of the Characteristics of GNSS Antennas -Introduction. Radiation Pattern Measurements of GNSS Antennas. Measurement of Axial Ratio of the RHCP GNSS Antenna. Gain Measurement of a GNSS Antenna. Measurement of the Bandwidth of GNSS Antennas. Measurement of PCO and PCV of GNSS Receiver Antennas. Group Delay Variation in GNSS Antennas and Its Measurement. ; Antennas and Site Considerations for Precise Applications -Introduction. Antenna and Site Dependence. Measurements and Ionospheric Modeling. Perfect Antenna Pattern and Method of Realization. PCV. Group Delay Variation Effects. Methods of Improvement for Antenna Performance. ;