Geographic information systems (GIS) is emerging as one of the most intriguing and promising high-tech fields, and this easy-to-understand resource examines and explains all of the critical GIS concepts in a clear manner that is easily understood, regardless of your technical background. While other GIS-learning sources are software-product biased, this unique volume offers an unbiased approach to the fundamentals of learning GIS, helping you become functional and knowledgeable in this burgeoning area. The book explains how to use GIS to its fullest capacity on a variety of engineering and technical projects. Moreover, you learn how to implement GIS in your business to manage information, integrate geographical data, analyze marketing trends, use demographics to positively impact your bottom line, and increase your project management capabilities. The book also addresses several common misconceptions about GIS, such as it only relates to GPS or that it is simply a map makerù. Additionally, this unique resource presents an original, comprehensive and innovative treatment of spatial coordinate systems, a topic rarely covered in GIS literature.
Table Of Contents
Introduction - A Definition of Geogrpahic Information Systems. Poincare 's Maps and the Move Toward GIS. Old Technology, New Platform. The GIS Mystique. About this Book. The Book 's Approach to GIS Concepts. Our Goal to Demystify Geographic Information Systems.; Part 1: What Is a Geographic Information System? From Geographic Data to Geographic Information.; How Does a GIS Work? - The Fundamental Flow of Information. Geography and Geographic Data. Georeferencing. Queries: Locations and Attributes. Geoprocessing. Spatial Analysis. Geographic Information. ; Why Use a GIS? - Discerning Your Need. Common GIS Products and Bi-Products. Data Management Systems. Quality Assurance, Six Sigma and GIS. Geostatistical Analysis. Project Visibility and Popularity. Benefits, Cost-Savings and Automation.; The Structure of Geographic Data - Raster and Vector. Feature Geometry. Image Structures. Attribute Tables and Indices. Topology. Generalization. Conclusion. ; Geospatial Metadata - What is Metadata? Geospatial Metadata and GIS. Metadata Schemata, Element Sets and Syntax. Geospatial Metadata Standards. Executive Orders #12906, 12951 and #13286. The National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). Geospatial Metadata Clearinghouses and Publishing Resources.; Part 2: Geodesy, Earth Models and Coordinate Systems ë Understanding the Core GIS Environment.; The Basics of Geodesy and Scale - What Is Geodesy? Understanding Map Scale. Simple Map Scale Calculation. Scale and Accuracy.; The Ellipsoid - History of the Earth Model. Shape of the Earth. Mathematical Model of the Earth. Typical Earth Shape Calculation. Reference Ellipsoids. ; The Horizontal Datum - What is a Geodetic Datum? Primary Categories of Geodetic Datums. Standard Horizontal Datums. Horizontal Datum Transformation Models. Horizontal Grid Transformation Methods.; The Vertical Datum - Mean Sea Level and The Geoid. Standard Vertical Datums. Vertical Datum Transformation Models. Vertical Grid Transformation Methods.; The Map Projection - The Physicality of the Globe. Transformation from the Globe. What Is a Map Projection? Choosing a Map Projection. Types of Map Projections (Properties). Classifications of Map Projections. Distortion and the Indicatrix.; The Coordinate System - What Is a Coordinate System? The Story of Latitude and Longitude. The Cartesian Coordinate System. Groups and Systems. The State Plane Coordinate Systems. The Gauss-Kruger Grids for the Eastern Hemisphere. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). Coordinate System Implementation in GIS.; Part 3: GIS Applications and Environments- Geographic Data for Analysis and Presentation.; Thematic Mapping - The Need for Thematic Mapping. Manipulating Thematic Layers. Types of Thematic Maps. Map Essentials: Data, Classification, Portrayal and Distinction. Common Cartographic Elements.; GIScience, Engineering and Related Applications - Using GIS for Technical Applications. GIScience: Principles and Applications. Engineering Applications. GIS Business Planning: Applying GIS on Technical Projects. Marketing and Financial Applications.; GIS and the Environment - Using GIS for Environment Applications. Managing Natural Resources. Environmental Investigation and Remediation Applications. Shoreline Management Systems. Other Environmental Applications.;