Packaging of microelectronics has been developing since the invention of the transistor in 1947. With the increasing complexity and decreasing size of the die, packaging requirements have continued to change. A step change in package requirements came with the introduction of the Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) whereby interactions with the external environment are, in some cases, required. This resource is a rapid, definitive reference on hermetic packaging for the MEMS and microelectronics industry, giving practical guidance on traditional and newly developed test methods. This book includes up-to-date and applicable test methods for today's package types. The authors cover the history and development of packaging, along with a view to understanding initial hermeticity testing requirements and the subsequent limitations of these methods when applied to new package types.
Table Of Contents
The Evolution of Packages, Their Sealing Methods, and Modes of Fabrication -Introduction. The Evolution of Microelectronics and MEMS Packages. MEMS Sealing Techniques and Mode Package Fabrication. Summary of MEMS Packaging Materials and Techniques. ; Assembly, Packaging, and Environmentally Induced Failures in MEMS -Introduction. Particle Contamination. Thermomechanical Constraints. Moisture and Gas Absorption. Conclusions: Reliability Demonstration and Accelerated Testing. ; Packaging Requirements for Hermeticity - The Need for Hermeticity in MEMS and Microelectronics Packaging. Balancing Maximum Permissive Leak Rate and Packaging Costs: The Quasi-Hermetic Package.; The Different Types of Leaks in MEMS and Microelectronics Packaging -Introduction. Leak Channels or Capillary Leaks. Permeation. Outgassing. Conclusion. ; Ex Situ Hermeticity Test Methods -Introduction. Fine Leak Tests. Gross Leak Tests. Combinational Tests. ; The History of Hermeticity Standards MIL-STD-883 T.M.1014 and MIL-STD-750 T.M. 1071 -Introduction: The First Hermeticity Tests. TheIntroduction of the Military Standards. The First Problems with Traditional Hermeticity Tests and Standards. Military Standard Revisions. Summary. ; Permeation -Introduction. Mathematics of Permeation. Limitations of the Packaging Material. Conclusions. ; Outgassing and Residual Gas Analysis (RGA) - Outgassing. Residual Gas Analysis. ; Low-Cavity Volume Capillary Leak Limitations - Limitations of the Helium Fine Leak Test Method. ; Q-Factor Monitoring of Resonant Microstructures as a Hermeticity Measurement Method -Introduction. Lumped Element Modeling of a Microresonator. Definitions and Measurement Methods of the Quality Factor Q. Relation Between Pressure and Q-Factor. ; In Situ Test Methods in Development -Introduction. Copper Test Structures. Micro-Pirani Gauge. ; Ex Situ Hermeticity Test Methods in Development -Introduction. FTIR Spectroscopy. Raman Spectroscopy. ; Summary of Hermeticity Test Methods ; The Way Forward -Introduction. Improvement on Existing Techniques. New Hermetic Materials and Hermeticity Test Methods. Conclusions.;