By (author): Ashok K. Agrawal

Copyright: 2023
Pages: 274
ISBN: 9781630819897

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Description
This book provides a practical and comprehensive guide to the design, analysis, and development of an active phased array antenna system. Reflecting the author’s decades of experience with these systems, the book is unique in that it pulls together in one volume key information from several disciplines and covers all the components of an active phased array antenna system, giving you the full scope of knowledge necessary to confidently design systems with high reliability and maintainability. It walks you through the multiple aspects of the active phased array antenna system design, with inputs from diverse specialties such as aperture design, T/R module design, hybrid lab, beam steering control, mechanical engineering, and manufacturing – helping you avoid problems that often require the redesign of some of the components of the antenna system. You will find step-by-step guidance on the design and analysis of an active phased array antenna system, including T/R modules, DC/DC converters, beamformers, beam steering controller, antenna packaging, thermal management, and antenna calibration in the field. You will also find details on antenna design for high reliability and clutter improvement factor, digital beamforming arrays, and strategies for cost reduction. With its unique coverage and practical approach, this is an important book for engineers new to the field as well as experienced antenna and radar engineers working on active phased array antenna systems.
Table Of Contents

Chapter 1 Practical Aspects of Active Phased Array Antenna Development

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Active phased array antenna system
1.3 Passive phased array antenna
1.4 Passive phased array antenna limitations
1.5 Active phased array antenna
1.6 Key radar system-level advantages of active phased arrays over passive phased arrays are summarized below:
1.6.1 Increased Sensitivity
1.6.2 Improved Target Detection in Clutter
1.6.3 Improved Waveform and Pattern Flexibility
1.6.4 Improved Wideband Operation
1.6.5 Increased reliability
1.6.6 Reduced prime power requirement
1.6.7 Reduced Cost
1.6.8 Lower Noise Temperature/Figure
1.6.9 Adaptive and digital beamforming

Chapter 2 Analysis And Design Of Linear And Planar Phased Arrays

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Analysis of Linear Arrays
2.3 Low sidelobes for Linear Arrays
2.4 Low sidelobe aperture distributions
2.4.1 Dolph-Cheveshev aperture distribution
2.4.2 Taylor distribution for linear arrays
2.4.3 Bayliss distribution for difference patterns
2.4.4 Implementation of monopulse beams for an active planar phased array antenna
2.5 Analysis and Synthesis of Planar Arrays
2.5.1 Rectangular grid
2.5.2 Triangular array element grid
2.6 Comparison of rectangular and triangular grids
2.7 Minimize the number of elements for a grating lobe-free pattern using a tilted array
2.8 Directivity and Gain of Active Arrays
2.9 Effect of amplitude and phase errors on the phased array antenna performance
2.9.1 Quantization errors
2.9.2 RMS sidelobe level due to amplitude and phase errors
2.10 Beam Pointing Error Due to Phase Quantization
2.11 Bandwidth criteria for active phased array antennas
2.11.1 Instantaneous bandwidth
2.11.2 Phased array operating bandwidth
2.12 Moderate instantaneous wide bandwidth array by applying amplitude taper in the receiver
2.13 Concluding remarks

Chapter 3 Transmit /Receive Modules

3.1 Introduction
3.2 T/R module architecture
3.2.1 Control module
3.2.2 Integration of T/R module with DC to DC converter
3.2.3 Shared leg T/R module architecture
3.3 Active phased array performance improvement
3.3.1 GaN wide bandgap power amplifiers
3.4. T/R module key performance parameters
3.4.1 Power added efficiency
3.4.2 T/R Module Noise Figure
3.4.3 Noise Figure of a Cascaded Network
3.4.4 T/R module noise temperature
3.4.5 1-dB compression point
3.4.6 Third-order intercept point (TOI or IP3)
3.5 T/R Module Architecture Module Tradeoffs
3.6 T/R module architectures for circular polarization
3.7 T/R module construction
3.8 Thermal stack up of the T/R module
3.9 Integration of MMIC, control module, and DC-DC converters
3.10 T/R module stability
3.11 T/R Module Reliability
3.12 T/R module cost
3.13 Performance requirements of T/R modules
3.14 Application of Silicon Germanium (SiGe) BiCMOS Technology in T/R modules (this section provided by Dr. Eric Holzman)
3.15 Concluding remarks

Chapter 4 Beamformer Architectures for Active Phased Array Antennas

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Beamformer Networks For Passive Phased-Array Antennas
4.3 Beamformer Networks For Active Phased-Array Antennas
4.3.1 Multiple independent receive beams
4.4 Impact of Beamformer Architecture on System Noise Temperature
4.5. Beamformer Architectures For High Reliability
4.6 Beamformer Networks for Wideband Active Phased-Array Antennas
4.7 Concluding remarks

Chapter 5 Radiating Elements

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Printed Circuit Radiating Elements
5.2.1 Printed Circuit Wideband Radiating Elements
5.3 Waveguide radiating elements
5.3.1 A wideband tapered double-ridged waveguide element fed by a coaxial probe
5.4 Radome heating for ice inhibition
5.5 Wideband parallel waveguide phased array radiator
5.6 Mutual coupling between radiating elements
5.7 Selection of the radiating element type
5.8 Radiating element design process
5.9 Phased array radiation pattern calculation by using the mutual coupling between elements in a small array
5.10 Concluding remarks

Chapter 6 Beam Steering and DC Power Distribution

6.1 Active Phased Array Antenna Beam Steering Controller (BSC)
6.1.1 Active Phased Array Distributed Beam Steering Controller
6.1.2 Active phased Array Centralized Beam Steering Controller
6.1.2.1 Advantages of Centralized BSC
6.1.2.2 Disadvantages of the Centralized BSC
6.2 Active Phased Array Power Distribution
6.2.1 DC-DC Converter Key Requirements
6.2.2 Distributed Power System
6.2.3 Centralized Power System
6.2.4 Average vs. Peak DC-DC Converters
6.2.5 Comparison of distributed and centralized power systems
6.3 Concluding remarks

Chapter 7 Active Phased Array Antenna Packaging

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Array Packaging Concepts
7.2.1 Tile Array Construction and Cooling Methods
7.2.2 Brick Array Packaging
7.2.3 Components of an LRU
7.2.4 Thermal Management
7.3 Active array antenna brick packaging schemes
7.3.1 Sliding vertical cold plate active array packaging
7.3.2 Edge-Cooled, Horizontal Cold Plate Array Packaging
7.3.3 Vertical Fixed Cold Plate Packaging Concept
7.4 LRU to the radiating element RF connections
7.5 Structural design
7.6 Active array antenna radome design
7.7 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 8 Active Phased Array Antenna Design for High Reliability

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Antenna MTBF
8.3 Active phased array antenna architecture description for high reliability
8.4 Maximizing the Array MTBCF
8.5 Antenna MTBF for different cluster sizes
8.6 Increasing Array MTBCF with redundant power supplies
8.7 Driver amplifier Boosters in the active phased array beamformers
8.8 Lifecycle maintenance cost estimation of an active phased array antenna
8. 9 Active phased array antenna availability and sparing
8.10 Concluding remarks

Chapter 9 Active Phased Array Design for High Clutter Improvement Factor

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Centralized phased array architecture
9.3 Distributed array architecture
9.4 Concluding remarks

Chapter 10 Active Phased Array Antenna Calibration

10.1 Introduction
10.2 Active array calibration using mutual coupling between array and external elements
10.3 Active array calibration technique using mutual coupling between array elements
10.4 Active array calibration technique using mutual coupling between one calibration element
and all array elements
10.5 Active Array Calibration Technique using mutual coupling between a few dedicated
internal elements and the array elements
10.5.1 Calibration procedure
10.5.2 Required Number of Calibration Elements
10.5.3 Calibration Accuracy
10.5. 4 Impact On Array Packaging
10.6 Concluding remarks

Chapter 11 Digital Beamforming for Active Phased Array Antennas

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Dynamic range improvement
11.3 Digital beamforming at subarray level
11.4 Digital beamforming of multiple simultaneously independent receiver beams
11.5 Angle tracking accuracy
11.6 Adaptive digital beamforming
11.6.1 Adapting nulling in analog arrays
11.7 Exciter Noise and Clutter Attenuation
11.8 Concluding remarks

Chapter 12 Cost Reduction Strategies for Active Phased Array Antennas

12.1 Introduction
12.2 High cost of current active phased array antennas
12.3 SPY-1 Array Antenna Cost Reduction
12.4. Improvements in technology and manufacturing processes
12.5 Paradigms
12.5.1 Legacy systems
12.5.2 Commercial parts and processes are not adequate for military applications
12.5.3 Cost-plus contracts
12.5.4 Lack of incentives
12.5.5 Schedule limitations do not permit any design changes
12.5.6 The Benefits of Competition to the Buyer: An Automobile industry example
12.5.7 Use the best available technology
12.5.8 Changes will increase program costs and schedule delays
12.6 Design Philosophy
12.6.1 Bottoms up
12.6.2 Top-down
12.7 Cost reduction strategies
12.7.1 Optimizing T/R module RF output power levels for phased array antenna
cost, size, prime Power, and dissipated heat
12.7.2 Trading the number of array faces for a hemispherical field of view
12.7.3 Band-aid Solutions
12.7.4 Antenna architecture
12.7.5 Minimize the number of interfaces
12.7.6 LRU Size versus Cost
12.7.7 Radiating element
12.7.8 T/R Modules
12.7.9 Module packaging
12.7.10 DC Power distribution
12.7.11 Beamformers, cables, and connectors
12.7.12 Power-added-efficiency and cost
12.7.13 Active phased array antennas for wide bandwidth operation
12.7.14 Antenna assembly and test
12.8 Conclusions

Author

  • Ashok K. Agrawal

    received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of New Mexico in 1976 and 1979, respectively. He has over thirty-five years of experience developing and manufacturing Active Phased Array Antennas. He also provided oversight of the two Navy’s active phased array antennas, SPY-3 and SPY-4, for the Zumwalt class DDG-1000 ships and Ford Cless CVN-78 aircraft carriers. For several years, he taught a three-day short course on Active Phased Array Antennas development and Manufacturing. He has published numerous articles on the subject and holds five U.S. patents.