This is your road map to today's technologies, systems, regulatory issues, and pricing schemes for electronic toll collection and road-user charging. This authoritative book lets you cut through the maze of available solutions and design options, so you can match the right technology to your policy needs. It clearly steers you through pricing and traffic management principles to easily establish and evolve policies and pricing schemes. The book also provides you with easy-to-follow end-to-end steps in system planning, technology selection, procurement and operations. This practical resource teaches you ways to implement an effective enforcement regime, while obeying laws on user privacy and balancing costs with returns. You find expert guidance on the charging process and technologies, vehicle classification, standards and regulatory environments, and back-office operations. The book presents case studies and best practice examples from around the world showing successful local, regional, and cross-border policies for tolling, road use pricing and traffic demand management. The book provides not only a valuable information source for government officials and industry staff but also an essential reference text for postgraduate and undergraduate students alike.
Table Of Contents
Introduction - overview of road charging developments. Social and economic rationale. Current examples of toll facilities. Technology applied to revenue collection. Road User Charging and Toll Collection - Historical context on charging and its evolution. AnIntroduction to the concepts, policy options and technologies for road charging. Charging for road Use. From policy to technology. Identification of the issues and making the case for the automation of the charging process. New methods of Charging. Complementary systems. Technology Options for Charging - Background. Minimum operational requirements. The dilemma of precedence. Charging versus payment. Functional requirements and technology choice including DSRC, GNSS, ANPR and solutions for occasional users. Standards and interoperability. The future. Technology Options for Enforcement - Background. The use of declarations. Measurability and enforceability. Enforcement strategy options. Including physical and evidential methods. The enforcement process. Examples. Cross-border enforcement. Innovation and trends. Vehicle Detection and Classification - Approaches to Detection and Classification including direct measurement, translation and inference, electronic declarations and indirect Capture. Detection and Measurement Technologies. Worked examples include Australia, LKW Maut Germany, Dartford Thurrock Crossing, EZ-Pass and Stockholm. The future. Central System - The Role of a Central System. Account registration and management, fulfilment, customer relations management. Charging data capture. Enforcement and revenue recovery. Systems management and reporting. Payment services. Data security. Disaster recovery. Procurement strategy. Managing start-up demand. O&M. Scalability and interoperability. System architectures. Assembling the Pieces - Context (geographic, technological, policy and politics, regulatory environment, timetable, pilot deployment). Developing the requirements. local expertise and global sourcing. Technology options and the case for standards. High occupancy & toll. Perspectives (procurement team and supplier). From integration to launch. Operations. Scaling. The Future. Case Studies - Urban demand management (Singapore, London, Durham and Stockholm). Small scale toll systems (vÖlesund/Giske Bruselskap Tunnel and Dartford Thurrock River Crossing). Regional interoperable tolling (Norway, Highway 407, TIS, EZ-Pass, Australia, Taiwan, Japan, Chile). Charging for HGV 's (Europe, HELP, New Zealand). HoT/HoV Lanes. Trials (Hong Kong, Cambridge, The Netherlands, DIRECTS, A555 and ADEPT). Future Developments - Vehicle Infrastructure Initiative (VII). Location Based Services. Technologies including active infra-red, wireless ad-hoc networks and CALM. Pay-As-You Drive insurance, the Universal On-Board Unit (UOBU), European Electronic Toll Service (EETS) and Dynamic Heavy Goods Vehicle Charging. Convergence of DSRC and GNSS. Intelligent Infrastructure. The pyschology of travel and use of information. Economics and spatial planning. Scenarios for 2055 and Smart Markets. Glossary of Acronyms and Technical Terms. Bibliography. Index.