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Artech House USA
Geospatial Data, Information, and Intelligence

Geospatial Data, Information, and Intelligence

By (author)s: Aaron Jabbour, Renny Babiarz
Copyright: 2023
Pages: 262
ISBN: 9781630819798

Hardback $144.00 Qty:
Digital download and online $112.00 Qty:

This book provides practitioners with structured methods for transforming geospatial data into the useful information they need to solve some of the world’s most pressing problems. It spotlights the importance of location for human experience in the everyday world and introduces spatial thinking as a foundation and the location mindset as a foundational perspective.


The book starts by showing how geospatial analysis is part of a more general data-to-information refinement process that requires the right mindset, toolset, and skillset to achieve. The book then presents structured principles and practices to help geospatial analysts—whether in government or industry—improve their observational, analytical, and communication techniques. These techniques are part of an original framework for interpreting geospatial data and information: the Observe, Analyze, Communicate (OAC) Framework. The OAC framework helps practitioners at all levels break down the basic steps of their day-to-day practice and learn valuable tradecraft that they can employ during each step.


You’ll learn how to center location as a foundational perspective in everyday life; use unique geospatial observation, analysis, and communication techniques; and know how to account for the role of uncertainty in assessment and production processes -- including utilizing special techniques to effectively communicate levels of certainty and uncertainty to your audience. You’ll also understand how pairing visual information with precise locational information serves to anchor human attention and provides an antidote to the common problem of disorientation.


The book reveals specific techniques and tradecraft that will greatly benefit all practitioners working with visual and locational information. One such tradecraft called Structured Geospatial Observation Techniques (SGOT) includes a technique called the Four Cornerstones that will allow you to structure your approach to visual data and extract more attribute and contextual data from your object of focus. Another technique reveals industry and government-gleaned tips and tricks to creating finished geospatial communications in paragraphs, products, and presentations.


Bringing together the authors’ combined 30 years of experience with geospatial intelligence (GEOINT), this book is a must-have practical resource for students, faculty, and practitioners of geospatial endeavors at any level of experience, especially fields that use imagery and spatial analysis. It serves as a textbook for classroom beginners and as a go-to desktop reference for professionals in their day-to-day geospatial efforts.

1 Introduction to the Geospatial Mindset, Toolset, and Skillset

1.1 The Case for “Geospatial”
1.1.1 Defining “Geospatial” and Related Terms
1.1.2 Delineating Geospatial Analysis: Spatial and Imagery
1.2 The Information Age
1.3 The Locational Data-to-information Refinement Process
1.4 The Location Mindset
1.5 The Geospatial Toolset
1.6 The Geospatial Skillset
1.7 Flourishing in the Information Age

2 The Location Mindset

2.1 Introduction to the Location Mindset
2.1.1 Locations are Widely Available
2.1.2 Geospatial Locations Are Universal
2.1.3 Locations Can Be Highly Accurate
2.1.4 Location Initiates Geospatial Observations and Analysis
2.2 Using Spatial and Geospatial Thinking
2.2.1 Spatial Thinking: Definition
2.2.2 Spatial and Geospatial Thinking in History
2.2.3 Spatial Thinking: Purpose and Practice Innateness: The Cerebral Grid
2.2.4 Geospatial Thinking: Definition
2.2.5 Geospatial Thinking: Purpose and Practice
2.2.6 Improving Spatial and Geospatial Thinking through Reasoning Object and Attribute Differentiation Object Recall Mental Rotation Mental Construction
2.3 Conclusion

3 The Geospatial Toolset

3.1 Introduction to the Geospatial Toolset
3.2 Geospatial Data
3.2.1 Geospatial Data Background
3.2.2 Global Emphasis on Geospatial Data
3.2.3 Geospatial Data Categories
3.2.4 Geospatial Data: Embedded in the Everyday
3.2.5 The Geospatial Data Setup
3.3 Geospatial Sensors
3.3.1 Machines: Remote Sensors
3.3.2 Machine: Direct Sensors
3.3.3 Human Collection of Location Data
3.4 Geospatial Systems
3.4.1 Geospatial Systems: A Recipe for Success
3.5 Geospatial Hardware
3.6 Geospatial Software
3.7 The Importance of People in the Geospatial Toolset
3.8 Conclusion

4 The Geospatial Skillset: Observation Principles

4.1 Introduction to Geospatial Observations
4.2 Defining Geospatial Observations
4.3 Geospatial Observations: Purpose and General Practice
4.4 Geospatial Observation Principles
4.4.1 Directed Observations: Collection Driven by Target Understanding
4.4.2 The Importance of Visualization
4.4.3 Optimizing Conditions: Focused Attention Improves Refinement
4.4.4 The Importance of Pairing Locations and Visualizations
4.4.5 Observational Uncertainty as a Default Position
4.4.6 Reference to Resolve
4.5 The Pitfalls of Visualization
4.5.1 Pitfalls of Geospatial Data: Imagery
4.5.2 Pitfalls of Geospatial Data on Maps
4.6 Conclusion

5 The Geospatial Skillset: Observation Practices

5.1 Introduction to Geospatial Observation Practices
5.2 Structured Geospatial Observation Techniques
5.2.1 Slow Observations
5.2.2 The Four Cornerstones (for Observations) Location Color Shape Context
5.2.3 Observational Perspective
5.2.4 Focal Point Control
5.2.5 Observational Reasoning
5.2.6 Observational Notations and Communications
5.2.7 Observation of Process Flows
5.2.8 Observable Keys Negators Indicators of the Observed Indicators of the Unobserved Signatures
5.3 External versus Internal Observations
5.4 Tradecraft Examples for Observation
5.4.1 Imagery-based Broad Area Search
5.4.2 Geospatial Change Observation
5.5 Conclusion

6 The Geospatial Skillset: Analysis Principles

6.1 Introduction to Geospatial Analysis Principles
6.2 Defining Geospatial Analysis
6.3 The Purpose of Geospatial Analysis
6.4 Foundational Principles of Geospatial Analysis
6.4.1 Identification
6.4.2 Relation
6.4.3 Context
6.4.4 Uncertainty
6.5 Geospatial Analytic Methodologies
6.5.1 Imagery Analysis
6.5.2 Spatial Analysis
6.6 Conclusion<

7 The Skillset: Geospatial Analysis Practices

7.1 Introduction to Geospatial Analysis Practices
7.2 Geospatial Analysis as a Profession: Imagery and Spatial Analysis Tradecraft
7.2.1 Imagery Analysis Tradecraft Visual Practices Technical Practices Target-specific Practices
7.2.2 Spatial Analysis Tradecraft Data Preparation and Uploading Geocoding and Geolocation Using Spatial Analysis Tools
7.2.3 Merging Imagery and Spatial Analysis Tradecraft
7.3 Structured Geospatial Analysis Techniques
7.3.1 Find, Link, and Layer Locations Find Locations Link Locations Layer by Location
7.3.2 Analyzing Entities Using the Four Cornerstones Analysis of Locations and Entities: Solving for “Where” Analysis of Color Analysis of Shape Analysis of Context
7.3.3 Analyzing for Relationships
7.3.4 Geospatial Analytic Reasoning
7.3.5 Analysis: Creating Observable Keys
7.3.6 Analysis for Geospatial Collection
7.3.7 Analytic Communications and Review
7.4 Conclusion

8 The Geospatial Skillset: Communication Principles

8.1 Introduction to Geospatial Communications Principles
8.2 Defining Geospatial Communication
8.3 Purpose of a Geospatial Communication
8.4 Geospatial Communication Principles
8.4.1 Knowing One’s Audience and Purpose
8.4.2 Unfinished vs Finished Geospatial Communications
8.4.3 Distillation of Communications
8.4.4 Communication Through Visualizations
8.4.5 Presentation
8.5 Foundations of a Finished Geospatial Communication
8.6 Conclusion

9 The Geospatial Skillset: Communication Practices

9.1 Introduction to Geospatial Communications Practices
9.2 Structured Geospatial Communication Techniques
9.2.1 Distilling the Geospatial Communication
9.2.2 Assessing the Audience
9.2.3 Writing Writing Organization: Sentences Writing Organization: Paragraphs Writing Style Points
9.2.4 The Four Cornerstones for Geospatial Text
9.2.5 Graphics Geospatial Graphics Geospatial Graphic Organization The Four Cornerstones for Geospatial Graphics
9.2.6 Presentations Preparation and the Four Cornerstones Presentation Post-presentation
9.2.7 Communicating Uncertainty Uncertainty Language Uncertainty Words: Workflows and Examples
9.2.8 Geospatial Confidence Communication
9.2.9 Building the Product Product Type Selection
9.2.10 Multi-layered Peer Review for Communication Communicating Objectivity
9.3 Conclusion

10 Outlook

10.1 Geospatial Advancement
10.2 Visualizing the Next Geospatial Horizon
10.3 Location: A Central Feature of our Future

  • Aaron Jabbour

    has enjoyed a decades-long career as a geospatial analyst, geospatial team leader, geospatial supervisor, and geospatial information officer. Mr. Jabbour has worked for numerous public safeties, national defense, and national security-focused organizations in the United States, Europe, and Asia. Mr. Jabbour has performed a wide variety of geospatial analysis and operations, spanning the tactical, operational, and strategic level, and has won numerous awards for analytic tradecraft. Mr. Jabbour has traveled the world in search of the most perplexing puzzles and difficult geospatial challenges and strives to share those lessons learned with others. Mr. Jabbour has also lectured at geospatial conferences, instructed hundreds of students in various organizations, and will stop whatever he is doing to mentor an employee or listen inquisitively to anyone with experience. Mr. Jabbour has a passion for all things geospatial and finds it thrilling to “solve for where” and see the spark in others who do the same.

  • Renny Babiarz

    , PhD, is Vice President of Analysis and Operations for AllSource Analysis, where he manages and contributes to geospatial analysis projects for government, non-government, and commercial customers. He is also an adjunct faculty member for the Johns Hopkins MS in Geospatial Intelligence (GEOINT) Program. Renny has a PhD in political science specializing in China's nuclear weapons program (Johns Hopkins University), an MA in Asian Studies specializing in China (University of Hawaii at Manoa), and certificates in Chinese language and GEOINT analysis. Additionally, Renny worked in public service as a GEOINT analyst for the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and has private sector research experience with science application International Corporation (SAIC) and AllSource Analysis.

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