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Artech House USA
Virtualizing 5G and Beyond 5G Mobile Network

Virtualizing 5G and Beyond 5G Mobile Network

Copyright: 2023
Pages: 410
ISBN: 9781630819316

Digital download and online $112.00 Qty:

The fifth generation (5G) mobile network brings significant new capacity and opportunity to network operators while also creating new challenges and additional pressure to build and operate networks differently. The transformation to 5G mobile networks creates the opportunity to virtualize significant portions of the radio access (RAN) and network core, allowing operators to better compete with over-the-top and hyperscaler offerings. This book covers the business and technical areas of virtualization that enable the transformation and innovation that today’s operators are seeking. It identifies forward-looking gaps where the technology continues to develop, specifically packet acceleration and timing requirements, which today are still not fully virtualized. The book shows you the operational and support considerations, development and lifecycle management, business implications, and vendor-team dynamics involved in deploying a virtualized network. Packed with key concepts of virtualization that solve a broad array of problems, this is an essential reference for those entering this technical domain, those that are going to build and operate these networks, and those that are seeking to learn more about the telecom network. It illustrates why you just can’t do it all in the cloud today.

1 Virtualizing the 5G RAN and Network

1.1 Introduction to virtualizing the Mobile network
1.1.1 The beginning of NFV.
1.2 Expanding on the first vision of virtualization
1.3 Breaking down the fundamentals driving Virtualization.
1.4 Applying this to the mobile radio network
1.5 Transforming the mobile network, one G at a time.
1.6 Evolving small steps on the Gs
1.7 Which ‘Network’ is this exactly:
1.8 TLS’s, acronyms, and domain specific terms abound.
1.9 Telecom providers go by many names
1.10 Addressing the various audiences
1.11 To those new to this industry.
1.12 Structure of the remaining chapters
1.12.1 The Fundamentals: Chapters 1-5
1.12.2 Engineering of Virtualized 5G and B5G Systems: Chapter 6 through 11
1.12.3 Future developments: Chapters 12 to 14
1.13. References


2 Benefits of NFV for 5G and B5G Networks and Standards Bodies

2.1 Why NFV for the network
2.1.1 Transformation of a large legacy business is difficult
2.2 The existing NEP ecosystem of vendors
2.3 Changing business model’s mid-stream
2.4 Independent Software Vendors as NEPs
2.5 Green field entrants into the CSP business
2.6 Transformation from hardware centric to software centric networks
2.6.1 Data traffic dominates the network
2.6.2 There is a fixed cost to moving bits
2.6.3 A tale of two models
2.7 Applying the Cloud model to the Telco
2.8 Paths taken to evolve the Telco Network
2.8.1 3G Data begins to be the primary content in the network
2.8.2 Interfaces connecting end points in the network
2.9 The ever-evolving introduction of technology into the Network
2.9.1 Making the network global
2.9.2 This global network comes at a high cost
2.9.3 Relating this back to the 5G network
2.10 The drive for improved agility and efficiency
2.10.1 DevOps and CI/CD
2.11 Separation between data plane and control plane
2.11.1 The 5G User Plane Function and Data Network
2.11.2 5G Standalone and Non-Standalone deployments
2.12 3GPP as the leading standard body for the mobile network
2.13 Introducing the ITU
2.14 IETF, IEEE, ETSI and TM Forum and other standards bodies
2.15 Open RAN’s role in virtualizing 5G
2.16 Venture Capital investments
2.17 Summary
2.18 References


3 Virtualization Concepts for Networks

3.1 The virtualization of the network
3.1.1 What is Virtualization?
3.2 Managing the Virtual Resources – Resource Control and Efficiency
3.3 A Brief History of Virtualization Concepts
3.4 Virtualization through the ages
3.4.1 The yearly years: Computer and OS Virtualization
3.4.2 The second decade of virtualization: Virtualization leaves the research labs
3.4.3 Smaller computers join the fray
3.4.3 Processes start talking to each other
3.4.4 Democratizing Computing in the 1980s
3.4.5 1990s Universality and Independence
3.4.6 2000 the era of Hardware Efficiency
3.4.7 2010 Control Efficiency
3.5 Cloud Computing
3.5.1 1970 – 1980, The embryonic phase
3.5.2 1990 Distributed and Bundling
3.5.3 2000 The Cloud becomes a commercial offering
3.5.4 2010’s Control, Automation, Orchestration and Application Engineering
3.6 Network Virtualization
3.6.1 1960 – mid 1980 Roots and Programmability of Distributed Computing
3.6.2 Mid 1980 – 2000 The Internet boom
3.6.3 2000 – 2005 Powerful Application Overlays and Ossification of the Internet
3.6.4 2005 – 2010 Network Virtualization and Network Slices
3.6.5 2010 Programmability of the Network
3.7 Basic Objects and Data Structures for Network Virtualization
3.7.1 Network Topology
3.7.2 Addressing
3.7.3 Routing
3.7.4 Resource Management
3.8 Summary
3.9 References


4 Data Plan Virtualization and Programmability for Mobile Networks

4.1 Data plane acceleration with OpenFlow and P4
4.1.1 Context for acceleration
4.2 OpenFlow
4.2.1 Flows
4.2.2 Configuration
4.2.3 System Model and Pipeline
4.2.4 Ports
4.2.5 Group, Meters and Counters
4.2.6 Forwarding Abstraction
4.2.7 Instructions and Actions
4.2.8 Header and Match Fields
4.2.9 Examples for Matching Headers
4.2.10 Evaluation of the OpenFlow Concept
4.2.11 The importance of OpenFlow in 5G
4.3 P4 Programming Protocol-independent Packet Processors
4.3.1 Domain-specific Programmability
4.3.2 The P4 Language
4.3.3 P4 Concept
4.3.4 Data Plane Forwarding and P4 Enhancements
4.3.5 Programming a P4 Device
4.3.6 The P4 Language
4.3.7 P4 Runtime Architecture
4.3.8 Evaluation of P4
4.4 Conclusion
4.5 References


5 Performance and Security, infrastructures for Virtual Network Functions

5.1 Performance and security considerations
5.1.1 Virtualization Modes and Requirements
5.1.2 Sharing, Aggregation, and Emulation in Virtualization
5.2 Performance Evaluation Concepts for the Sharing of Resources
5.2.1 Networking Scenario
5.2.2 Mathematical Concept
5.2.3 Mathematics model
5.2.4 A More Realistic Description of the Impact
5.2.5 Smallest Timescale and Timescale Analysis
5.2.6 Capabilities and Conclusion
5.3 Performance Evaluation Concepts for the Aggregation of Resources
5.3.1 Foundations
5.4 CPU Pinning
5.5 Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA)
5.6 Conclusion
5.6 References


6 Transforming and Disaggregation in 5G and B5G Networks

6.1 The transformed and disaggregation of the network
6.1.1 Challenges to transformation the telco network
6.2 DevOps, a method to improve the system management.
6.3 TelcoDevOps
6.4 Transforming the operations in the Network
6.5 Rolling out 5G in the network
6.5.1 5G Non-Standalone and Standalone considerations.
6.6 Private LTE and Private 5G
6.7 Why now, the cost of the 4G and 5G
6.7.1 Regulatory considerations
6.8 Security in the disaggregated network
6.9 Transforming Operations, a use case example
6.10 Beyond 5G market drivers
6.11 References


7 Designing virtualized-RAN

7.1 Virtualizing the 5G RAN
7.1.1 It all begins with the standards
7.1.2 Operating systems of choice
7.1.3 Supplementation of the O.S.
7.2 The continuing evolution of the standards
7.3 Attaching the UE to a network
7.3.1 The roaming UE
7.3.2 The UE detailed signaling flow
7.4 Initialization of the DU to CU connection
7.4.1 Back to the UE attachment
7.5 The 80/20 rule
7.6 Splitting the RAN – revisited
7.6.1 FEC processing and more in the RAN
7.7 eCPRI – The Front Haul Interface transformation
7. 8 Summary
7.9 References


8 vRAN Performance Engineering

8.1 Network Performance Engineering
8.1.1 5G Drivers
8.1.2 5G Usage Scenarios
8.1.3 5G Spectrum Bands
8.2. 5G Functional Split
8.2.1 5G Functional Split Origin
8.2.2 eCPRI
8.2.3 Functional Split Options
8.2.4 Functional Splits Tradeoff
8.2.5 How to Select and Additional Functional Split Options Key Split Options for Initial Deployment
8.3 5G Deployment options: Standalone (SA) and Non-Standalone (NSA) Architecture
8.3.1 SA and NSA Deployment Options
8.3.2 Technical and Cost Comparison Technical Comparison between SA and NSA Options Deployment Time and Cost Comparison between NSA and SA Options
8.3.3 Migration Path from 4G LTE to 5G
8.4. 5G Roadmap
8.4.1 3GPP Release of 5G NR
8.4.2 5G Services in North America
8.4.3 4G-5G Interworking Architecture
8.4.4 User Plane and Control Plane Deployment Considerations
8.5 Key Challenges in 5G Roll Out
8.5.1 System Security Backwards Compatibility Cloud Computing, NFV, and SDN
8.5.2 Service Performance and Availability Redundancy Allocation Live Migration of Network Functions


9 Building the vRAN Business – Technologies and Economical Concerns for a Virtualized Radio Access Network

9.1 Where is the cost and opportunity in 5G
9.2 The 5G business outcome
9.3 New models to address the TCO
9.4 The oRAN model introduces a RAN Intelligent Controller
9.5 Features of the one socket server
9.6 Open Source remains a critical element to the virtualization effort.
9.6.1 Open-Source community in the RAN
9.7 Asymmetry in 5G and the previous G’s
9.8 5G market drivers in Asia
9.9 Business considerations of virtualization
9.10 White Boxes - Truly SHVS – why and why not in the vRAN
9.11 Bright Boxes - Standard High-Volume Servers – with one or two ‘customized’ features
9.12 References


10 Designing Virtualized 5G Networks

10.1 Successfully Designing Virtualized 5G Networks
10.1.1 What is Success for a Virtual System Design?
10.1.2 Overall Aim
10.1.3 Efficient Virtualization
10.1.4 Separation and Portability
10.1.5 Open-Source Software
10.2. Open-Source Software for 5G
10.2.1 Why Open-Source Software (OSS)
10.2.2 Flexibility and Agility
10.2.3 Speed of development and deployment
10.2.4 Low Licensing Efforts
10.2.5 Cost-Effectiveness
10.2.6 Ability to Start Small
10.2.7 Software Security
10.2.8 Shared Maintenance Costs
10.2.9 Enabling Future Development and Attract Better Talent
10.3. 5G Open-Source efforts
10.3.1 Open source 5G Core Network Elements
10.3.2 Openair-CN-5G
10.3.3 Open5GS
10.3.4 free5GC
10.3.5 Open-source Evolved Packet Core
10.3.6 OMEC
10.3.7 Facebook MAGMA
10.3.8 srsEPC
10.4 Open-source Radio Access Network Elements
10.4.1 OpenAirInterface 5g RAN
10.4.2 srsRAN
10.4.3 O-RAN Amber
10.5 Open Software-Defined-Radio Devices
10.6 Open-source Control and Orchestration
10.6.1 OAI Mosaic 5G
10.6.2 Akraino
10.7 Design and Performance Criteria for Virtualized 5G Systems
10.7.1 Computer Systems and Software Engineering Concepts for Virtualized 5G Systems
10.8 Computer Systems and Software Engineering Concepts for 5G Functions
10.9 Performance Criteria for 5G Systems
10.9.1 Scenarios and KPIs
10.10. Summary
10.11 References


11 Scaling Disaggregated?vRANs

11.1 The Disaggregated vRAN
11.1.1 RAN Disaggregation
11.2 RAN Intelligent Controller Overview
11.2.1 Interfaces
11.2.2 RIC Design Principles and Components
11.2.3 Policy Guidance
11.3 Security Challenges
11.2.4 ML/AI Role in the RIC
11.3 Security Challenges
11.3.1 Key Security Threats
11.3.2 Key Security Pillars Virtualization and Softwarization Security Open Source and API Security Network Slicing Security SDN Security Cloud RAN Security Edge Computing Security Supply Chain Security Data Security and Privacy Optimization and Orchestration Security Predictive Security Monitoring and Analytics
11.4 5G Resiliency
11.4.1 Network Resiliency
11.4.2 VNF Resiliency
11.4.3 Dynamic Rerouting with Live Migration Support
11.5 References


12 Private 5G Networks and the Edge

12.1 The privatization of the network with p5G
12.1.1 Usage Scenario and Objectives
12.1.2 Service Objectives and Attributes for Private 5G
12.2 Technology Overview
12.2.1 Deployment Scenarios
12.3 Multi-access Edge Computing and Private 5G Systems
12.3.1 MEC Overview
12.3.2 MEC Architecture Elements
12.3.3 Future MEC Solutions for Private 5G Systems
12.4 Business Issues with Private 5G and MEC Systems
12.4.1 Enabling Private 5G Benefits for Applications
12.4.2 SIM, eSIM, iSIM
12.4.3 MEC and Hyperscalers at the Edge
12.5 Summary
12.6 References


13 Open-Source Software Development and Experimental Activities

13.1 Open-Source and the research community
13.1.1 5G Open-Source Software Packages
13.1.2 Openair-CN-5G
13.1.3 Open5GS
13.1.4 Open5GS
13.1.5 free5GC
13.1.6 Open Source Evolved Packet Core
13.1.7 OMEC
13.1.8 Facebook MAGMA
13.1.9 srsEPC
13.2 Open-source Radio Access Network Elements
13.2.1 OpenAirInterface 5G RAN
13.2.2 srsRAN
13.2.3 O-RAN Amber
13.2.4 Open Software-Defined-Radio (SDR) Devices
13.3 Open-source Control and Orchestration
13.3.1 OAI Mosaic 5G
13.3/2 Akraino
13.4 5G Experimental Networks for US-EU Collaboration
13.4.1 POWDER
13.4.2 Colosseum
13.4.3 COSMOS
13.4.4 AERPAW
13.4.5 NITOS
13.4.6 R2LAB
13.4.7 Open Experimental Sites in 5G-EVE
13.5 Open5GLab
13.5.1 Plug’In
13.5.2 Wireless Edge Factory
13.5.3 5TONIC
13.5.4 Open Experimental Sites in 5GENESIS
13.5.5 Open Experimental Sites in 5G-VINNI
13.6 Summary
13.7 References


14 Summary of Virtualization of 5G and Beyond.

14.1 Where it all began
14.2 New Markets
14.3 6G is on the horizon
14.4 Summary of some key factors
14.4.1 A cloudy crystal ball
14.5 In conclusion
14.5.1 Possible research areas
14.6 References


15 Acronyms, TLA’s and Other Common Terms

15.1 Introduction to TLA’s and other acronyms
15.2 Some CSP acronyms and terms



  • Larry J. Horner

    is a Principal Engineer and Senior Solution Architect at Intel. His efforts focus on accelerating the transformation of the global communication provider network. His work covers all aspects of the carrier transformation including virtualization from innovation to scale deployment from the enterprise edge premises equipment into the core of the CSP network. A Life Senior Member of the IEEE, member of the board of the local Communication Society, North America Region 5 ComSoc representative and General Co-Chair for the International IEEE NFV SDN conference.

  • Kurt Tutschku

    is a professor for telecommunication systems at the Blekinge Institute of Technology (BTH). He is leading BTH’s team on SDS (Secure and Distributed Systems). He received this Ph.D. in Computer Science in 1999 and this Habilitation degree in 2008. Both degrees were awarded by the University of Würzburg, Germany. Kurt’s research interests are centered around the architecture and mechanism of future generation distributed systems, softwarized networks, and Clouds (incl. NFV). Kurt has published about 90 books, journals, and conference contributions. He serves as one of the General Co-Chair of the IEEE Conference on NFV-SDN since 2017.

  • Andrea Fumagalli

    is a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Texas at Dallas. He holds a Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering (1992) and a Laurea Degree in Electrical Engineering (1987), both from the Politecnico di Torino, Torino, Italy. From 1992 to 1998 he was an Assistant Professor of the Electronics Engineering Department at the Politecnico di Torino, Italy. He joined UT-Dallas as an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering in August 1997 and was elevated to the rank of Professor in 2005.


    Dr. Andrea Fumagalli has been chosen to lead a subset of an international collaboration to create the computer network architecture of the future — preparing for a time when trillions of devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. Dr. Fumagalli's research interests include aspects of wireless, optical, Internet of Things (IoT), and cloud networks, and related protocol design and performance evaluation. He has published about two hundred and fifty technical papers in peer-reviewed refereed journals and conferences.

  • ShunmugaPriya Ramanathan

    (Priya) is pursuing her Doctoral degree in 5G Network Function Virtualization at the University of Texas at Dallas (UTD). She works in the Open Network Advanced Research (OpNeAR) lab under the guidance of Dr. Andrea Fumagalli. Her research focuses on the performance evaluation of various open-source reliability schemas for the virtualized 5G Radio Access Network (RAN) and its corresponding Transport Network components. She is an active reviewer of several IEEE papers and recently became an IEEE Senior member. During her research time, she also worked as a graduate Intern at Intel for nine months. Her research interests include software engineering, 5G RAN, IoT, fault protection, and restoration with performance evaluation.


    Priya received her B.E, in Electronics and Communication Engineering from Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai, India in 2004 and her Masters in Electrical Engineering from UTD in 2018. She worked as the technical lead at Honeywell Technology of Solutions. She was a firmware engineer in Home and Building Solutions to build Honeywell’s Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) controllers from 2004 to 2012. She also provided L3 support for the HVAC field engineers in the Asia Pacific and North American regions. During her work, she received a US patent (US 8174962 B2) granted in BACnet communication systems – an open-source communication protocol for Home and Building Solutions.

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